In the palm oil mill plantation, the processing of palm oil fresh fruit bunch (FFB) to obtain palm oil had resulted in the production and accumulation of biomass such as empty fruit bunch (EFB). The accumulation of EFB has become environmental problem and issue since its delayed utilization results in the bioconversion of methane that directly contributes to the greenhouse gas emission. In this study, pyrolysis has been carried out on treated EFB using copper oxide coated onto silica oxide (CuO/SiO2) catalysts. A series of CuO/SiO2 catalysts calcined at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 oC for 17 hours was synthesized by wet impregnation technique. The catalytic pyrolysis was experimented using a catatest microreactor. The result showed that the 700 oC CuO/SiO calcined catalyst has produced 54% bio-oil, 32% char and 14% bio-gas.
Rice (Oryzae sativa) is an essential grain in the world and in Malaysia. Con-comittantly, it also produces a huge amount of paddy straw. For every 1 tons of harvested grains, 1.35 tons of paddy straw was produced (Sun et. al, 2002). However, an abundant amount of rice straw is poorly utilized. Current practice of rice straw waste management is by conducting open burning which contribute to increase Green House Gas emission (GHG). GHG emission is detrimental to human┐s health (i.e. induce asthma), creates environmental pollution by the production of `black snow┐ as well as increases the world temperature. Consequently, Reēzeē is a potent and extravagant, sweet aroma. It is a dual bio-transformation of Ascomycete and Basidiomycete. It is essentially transformed of ferulic acid derived from paddy straw and it has highlighted an economical trust into a viable and aconomical prduct. The acid of essence into the formation of vanillin, through which many potent and economic application could be exploited and benefited. It is economically estimated 13% (wt/v) of vanillin could be produced from 1 g of paddy straw.